Niche-Market A niche market is a focused, targetable portion of a broad market.Niche selling generally means you’ll have less competition.Selling in a specific, niche market also means you have fewer customers. But those customers have a more intense interest in the products you offer, and by meeting their needs, there are benefits to be reaped.
Lacemaking is a niche-market in that only a small portion of the world’s population knows, enjoys, does it.Tatting is a niche-market in the lacemaking world.Split Ring Tatting Technique & designing is yet a further delineation of the Tatting niche-market.
Publish To prepare and issue (printed material) for public distribution or sale
Printing A process for physically reproducing text and images, typically with ink, on paper.
Traditional Publishing Associated with large publishing houses that purchase the right to publish your intellectual property (book) in exchange for royalties of 7-10% of the books cost. The publishing house company pays for everything so they retain control of the production including editorial, illustrations, design, copyright, etc. Most of the time they tell you what the book will look like.
Desktop Publishing Desk-Top Publishing (DTP) is the process of utilizing home-based computer hardware and software programs to write a book. It usually refers to the author being able to perform all aspects of book interior and cover design, layout and editing. It allows individuals to self-publish printed matter without the prohibitive expense of commercial printing.
Digital printing Method of printing from a digital-based image directly to a variety of media. It usually refers to professional printing where small-run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large-format and/or high-volume laser or inkjet printers.
Digital printing has a higher cost per page than more traditional Offset Printing methods, but this price is usually offset by avoiding the cost of all the technical steps required to make printing plates. It also allows for on-demand printing, short turnaround time, and even a modification of the image (variable data) used for each impression. The savings in labor and the ever-increasing capability of digital presses means that digital printing is reaching the point where it can match or supersede offset printing technology’s ability to produce larger print runs of several thousand sheets at a low price.
Digital printing eliminates the numerous steps involved in the offset printing process, such as creating films and plates for ink rollers. Most digital presses today apply ink in a single pass from a single ink head, similar to common inkjet printers found in homes and offices.
Digital Printing Facts
- Shorter turnaround
- Results in lower costs for small print runs
- Offer 4-color process printing (CYMK)
- Color printing–may be less accurate color-matching (vs lithography)–does not use Pantone matching system/ink as does offset printing.
- Proofing is more accurate because you see the actual finished piece.
- Ink is transferred onto the paper via an electrical charge
- Ability to print ‘shorter runs’. Any print quantity under 500 units is typically well suited for a digital press—reduces your financial burden–no need to spend a large sum of money for upfront printing (large print runs)–no need to stock inventory–print as you go
- Lower impact on the environment–less wastes are produced (ink, paper, chemicals and set-up materials)
Offset Printing A commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or “offset”) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film (called “fountain solution”), keeping the non-printing areas ink-free.
Also known as Lithographic Printing or Conventional Printing
Offset Printing Facts
- Associated with High Volume/Commercial–A print quantity of over 500 units is typically well suited for offset printing.
- Higher image quality/increased resolution
- More costly and increased turn-around time: A typical offset press requires at least two pressmen to run a job, plus added maintenance, setup, printing plates and specialized inks.
- Lower unit cost directly related to higher volume
- Can accommodate larger formats such as pages/book sizes.
- Prints layers of 4 (sometimes 6) different colors of semi-transparent ink on top of one another to reproduce the original image
- Process: design is first burned onto a plate then transferred (or ‘offset’) from the plate to a rubber sheet then to the printing surface. The lithographic process is base of the repulsion of oil and water. The image to be printed gets ink from ink rollers while the non-printing areas attract a film of water that keeps the non-printing areas ink-free.
- “4-Color” — needs 4-5 plates, one for each color including black (RGB)
- Color = CYMK—3 main pigments + K (black) to ‘fill-in’ shadow/improve contrast
- Allow specialized colors & techniques— Offset presses can print PMS colors and utilize gloss/dull varnishes for added texture. Multiple press “heads” allow for an infinite array of colors and printing techniques.
Print-On-Demand (POD) Companies This group of publishing/printing companies targets the small volume book market. These companies sell you services to get your book into print, putting your book into their distribution system. They own the book in the form (the actual book) that they produced. You still own the copyright to the intellectual property you created. Author performs (or purchases) the various services associated with publishing under their own name/imprint as the ‘Publisher’. Author owns all rights to the intellectual property they write and publish. With this way of publishing a book, there is a fixed cost per copy, regardless of the size of the order. The unit cost per copy printed us usually higher than offset printing. The process involves uploading print-ready (PDF format) files that are stored by the POD company. Everything is printed as it is ordered—no inventory to worry and no outlay of money. Changes can be made to your book files whenever you want.
These companies are also known as/synonomous with:
- Book-On-Demand (BOD)
- Self-Publishing Companies
- Desktop Publishing (DTP)
- Independent Publishing
- True Self-Publishing
Self-Publishing The publication of any book or other media by the author of the work, without the involvement of an established third-party publisher. The author is responsible and in control of entire process including design (cover/interior), formats, price, distribution, marketing & PR. The authors can do it all themselves or outsource all or part of the process to companies that offer these services.
Publisher An individual or business responsible for the printing and distribution of printed or digital publications.They may not be the creator of the material and may serve as the intermediary between the author of the publication and the consumer market.
Bowker (the US agency who sells and manages ISBN numbers) defines a ‘Publisher’ as:”Anyone who is undertaking the financial risk to bring a book to market and coordinating everything involved: advertising, marketing, printing, order fulfillment, etc.”
Once you buy an ISBN number for your book/work–you become a ‘publisher’–not just an author.
Imprint of Record This term refers to the name of the book’s publisher and its date of publication. It is usually found on the title page. A single publishing company can have multiple imprints. These different imprints are used to market to different consumer segments.
My example: I am Karen Bovard—the author of Fun with Split Ring Tatting and the company owner of The ShuttleSmith Publishing Company.
In the act of buying ISBN numbers, and declaring an imprint/company name in the process of buying these numbers, you are in effect creating a publishing business/company and as such are a ‘publisher’.
Publisher vs. Imprint of Record ISBN numbers have a prefix permanently associated with the publisher who purchased them from Bowker. That publisher (also known as the ‘imprint of record’, ‘root publisher’, or ‘publisher of record’) may legally create ‘second publishers’ and allocate the ISBN numbers they own to them. All Books In Print will point only to the root publisher. Bowker does not have a way to record second publishers.
My example: I, Karen Bovard, purchased a group of 10 ISBN numbers, becoming The ShuttleSmith Publishing Company. The ‘Imprint of Record’ is The ShuttleSmith Publishing Company. I used one ISBN number for my book titled Fun with Split Ring Tatting. As the owner of these ISBN numbers I can sell or give away one (or more) of my ISBN numbers to friends or other wannabe authors for their own books. They (not me) become the ‘publisher’ (aka ‘second publishers’) and own/control this purchased/gifted ISBN number and all rights to their book. The only difference is that their book will not be registered under their personal imprint name (such as with Books In Print or Bowker Agency).
Page Layout The process by which elements (text, photos, illustrations, graphs, etc.) are laid out on the page (either electronic or printed) orderly, esthetically, and precisely. Text and linked images can only be modified as an external source. Embedded images can be modified with the layout application software. Text can be keyed (typed) into the layout program or placed/linked (with database publishing applications) to an external source of text. Graphic design styles (eg. Color, transparency, filters) may be applied to layout elements. Typography styles may be applied to text automatically
Desk-Top Publishing The creation of printed materials using page layout on a personal computer. It allows individuals to self-publish printed matter without the prohibitive expense of commercial printing.
Page Layout Program Computer software programs that allow more control over design/layout/typography than word-processing programs.
ISBN ISBN stands for International Standard Book Number. It is a unique 10 or 13 digit number assigned to every published book. An ISBN identifies a title’s edition, publisher and physical properties such as trim size, page count and binding type. An ISBN barcode is usually printed on the lower right corner of the rear cover. An ISBN is required if you want to sell your book in bookstores and place it in libraries.
If you plan to sell to smaller retailers then your book may not need an ISBNumber.
Bowker is the Official ISBN Agency for the United States, exclusively responsible the assignment of the ISBN prefix anyone with a residence of office in the U.S.
Buy a single ISBN for $125 or 10 ISBN’s for $250.
Different versions of a book will need a separate ISBN—Hardback, Softback, EPUB, MOBI, and PDF).
If you purchase multiple ISBN’s you will need to register titles to Books in Print at www.bowker.com
See further information regarding ISBN options in the CreateSpace segment.
Page Layout ProgramComputer software programs that allow more control over design/layout/typography than word-processing programs.
Page Layout The process by which elements (text, photos, illustrations, graphs, etc.) are laid out on the page (either electronic or printed) orderly, esthetically, and precisely. Text and linked images can only be modified as an external source. Embedded images can be modified with the layout application software. Text can be keyed (typed) into the layout program or placed/linked (with database publishing applications) to an external source of text. Graphic design styles (eg. Color, transparency, filters) may be applied to layout elements. Typography styles may be applied to text automatically.
Bleed The printing term used to indicate the area with a background image that will be trimmed off after the file is printed and cut down to the finished size. Since the bleed area will be trimmed off during the cutting process, there should be no text or other important information in the bleed area. Projects that make use of image bleed should extend any bleeding background and/or images 1/8″ over the final paper trim edge. It is recommend that all other text and graphics stay inside a “Safe Zone” printing area which stays inside the final paper trim edge by about 1/4″. This ensures a more professional appearance and eliminates any risk of type or images being accidentally “nicked” during trimming.
Spine The part of the cover that wraps around the bound edge of the book.
Trim Where the page will be cut.
Trim Size Refers to the final size of the book. (Eg. 8×10 inches).
Bleed To print at or off the very edge of a page by design. Commonly used to accommodate images and illustrations.
Live Elements The content within the viewable area (or safe zone) which is always seen. No essential elements are cut during the bookmaking process.